Lesson 12: Conjunctions, Relative Pronouns & Subordinate Sentences

In this lesson we will enter a new, exciting area of Greek language: we will learn how to join sentences and create more complex meaning, denoting purpose, doubt, conclusion, etc.

We will learn the special words (conjunctions and pronouns) that we must use in order to accomplish this, grouped according to their function/role, and we will practice in the formation of various complex phrases.

 

1. Conjunctions

Conjunctions are the non-declinable words that unite words or sentences.

In Greek, there are various types of conjunctions, depending on the function they fulfil:

a. Coordinating Conjunctions: they correlate words, phrases or senteces. As a general rule, these conjunctions join elements having equal relationships, i.e. objects to objects, qualitative adjectives to qualitative adjectives, principal sentence to principal sentence, etc.

The most usual coordinating conjunctions are:

και* (and),
ούτε (nor, neither)

ή (or),
είτε (or, either),

αλλά, μα, όμως (all three meaning but)
ωστόσο (nevertheless)
ενώ (whereas),
αν και (although)

* in front of a word beginning with a vowel, και can take the form of κι for euphony reasons (e.g. εκείνος κι εκείνος, έχω μία αδελφή κι έναν αδελφό)

 

b. Subordinating Conjunctions: This type is used to join a subordinate sentence to a principal one. There are various types of subordinating conjunctions, depending on the function they are supposed to fulfil:

  • Final: να (to), για να (in order to)
  • Causal: γιατί, διότι, επειδή (all three meaning because), αφού (since, now that)
  • Suppositive: εάν, αν, άμα (if)
  • Conclusive: άρα, λοιπόν, επομένως, ώστε (therefore)
  • Explanatory: δηλαδή (namely, that is)
  • “Specific”: ότι, πως (that)
  • Temporal: όταν (when), ενώ (while), αφού (after), καθώς (while), προτού (before), πριν / πριν να (before), μόλις (as soon as), ώσπου (until), ωσότου (until), όποτε (whenever, any time that)
  • Tentative: μη(ν), μήπως (lest)
  • Comparative: παρά (than)

 

2. Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns introduce a subordinate sentence which refers to a particular word (usually a noun) of another (principal or subordinate) sentence. These are:

  • ο οποίος, η οποία, το οποίο (who, whose, whom, which)
  • όποιος, όποια, όποιο (whoever, …, whichever)
  • όσος, όση, όσο (as many/much as)
  • που (who, …, which)
  • ό,τι* (what, whatever)

*notice the comma which differentiates the relative pronoun ό,τι from the final conjunction ότι

The pronouns που and ό,τι are non-declinable.
The pronouns ο οποίος…, όποιος…, όσος… are declined normally as adjectives without a vocative case.
The pronouns όποιος…, όσος… can take on the suffix -δήποτε which enhances the value of -ever.
The non-declinable pronoun ό,τι can also take on the suffix -δήποτε, but in this case it loses the comma (οτιδήποτε)

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Exercise:

A. Translate the following sentences in Greek:

  1. I want you to help me.
  2. Whatever you see here is his.
  3. We go to the movie theater in order to watch a movie.
  4. I hear that Maria will be absent tomorrow.
  5. When she finishes her book, she will go to her mother’s house in order to eat.

Key to the exercise:

  1. Θέλω να με βοηθήσεις.
  2. Ό,τι βλέπεις εδώ είναι δικό του.
  3. Πηγαίνουμε στον κινηματογράφο για να δούμε μία ταινία.
  4. Ακούω ότι η Μαρία θα λείψει αύριο.
  5. Όταν τελειώσει το βιβλίο της, θα πάει στο σπίτι της μητέρας της για να φάει.
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Beautiful Medieval Town in Greece: Mystras

Mystras is, without any doubt, the most famous castle and medieval town in Greece. It is located in Southern Peloponese, at 140 miles from Athens and no more than 5 miles from modern Sparta.

When Crusaders overcame and seized the Byzantine Empire back in 1204, they founded various latin states, building towns and castles to protect their new conquests. Nevertheless, Francs’ dominance over Moreas (as Peloponese was called back then) didn’t last long. Their last prince, William Villehardouin, was defeated in battle, imprisoned, and forced to give up the seat of his Despotate: Mystras came back to Byzantine hands.

During the 14th century, Mystras flourished as a major political, military and spiritual centre — while being constantly harassed by Westerners and Turks alike. The fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire (1453) did not mark the town’s decline though. The castle continued to be contested between Venetians and Turks, with all the subsequent destructions and degradation, until it was finally burnt down in 1770, when a revolution of the Greeks was suppressed violently.

The town itself climbs up the slopes of a height on top of which (at about 900 feet) sits the medieval  citadel. It is divided in a lower, middle and upper town, the lower being the abode of the poorer classes and the upper including the houses of the noblemen and their families. An external wall surrounded the ensemble, while there was a second, internal wall that protected the upper town. Both are visible today, although the internal wall is in much better shape.

The view from the citadel is majestic, as Mystras was a strategically selected site and oversees the plain and nearby mountain, rendering the town invulnerable from unexpected attacks.

The town of Mystras is full of beautiful Byzantine temples, monasteries and palaces in various states of preservation …or deterioration. Works are being undertaken for the erection of destroyed buildings, as the town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In the modern village of Mystras, at the feet of the medieval town, you will find rooms, hostels, restaurants and shops. The characteristic stone houses of Laconia create a quite singular ambience and the lush Taygetos Mountain in the background will make you feel a part of the place’s history through the ages.

Reserve at least a couple of hours, most preferably four, in order to enjoy your visit. It will take a little climbing, but you won’t regret it — especially when considering that you won’t get annoyed by large crowds of people and you’ll practically have the place to yourself. The ticket is 5 euros (2012) and children are admitted free.

If you’re going to Mystras from Athens, you should take the Autoroute from Athens to Corinth, then follow the Autoroute that goes from Corinth to Tripolis. When approaching Tripolis, follow the route that leads to Sparta and Gytheion. There is also daily bus service from Athens, Sparta, and Tripolis.

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Lesson 11: Greek Nouns, Final

 

In this lesson, we will learn the remaining tables of declension for Greek Nouns (Masculine, Feminine, Neutral)

This will be our final lesson on the declension of Nouns. We will learn some new ones & we’ll remember what we’ve learned up to now, with links to the respective pages.

1. Masculine Nouns

We have already learned how to decline masculine nouns ending in

Today we will learn how to decline Masculine Nouns in -έας (pl. -είς).



Singular Plural
Nom. o γραφ-έας (scribe) οι γραφ-είς
Gen. του γραφ-έα των γραφ-έων
Acc. το γραφ-έα τους γραφ-είς
Voc. – γραφ-έα γραφ-είς

Other nouns of the same group are:

ο ιερέας (priest)

ο γραμματέας (secretary)

ο αμφορέας (amphora)

ο συγγραφέας (writer, author)

 

2. Feminine Nouns

We’ve already learned how to decline feminine nouns ending in

To day we’ll learn two more paradigms:
Feminine Nouns in -ω and -ώ: They are mostly proper nouns (names of women), as well as a few common ones.

in -ω in -ώ
Nom. η Φρόσ-ω η Μυρτ-ώ
Gen. της Φρόσ-ως της Μυρτ-ώς
Acc. τη Φρόσ-ω τη Μυρτ-ώ
Voc. – Φρόσ-ω – Μυρτ-ώ

As is the case in English, proper names do not have a plural. Nevertheless, neither do common nouns of this group:

η ηχώ (echo)

η πειθώ (persuasion)

η φειδώ (thrift, frugality)

These nouns may also form the Genitive case in -ούς:
η ηχώ – της ηχούς
η πειθώ – της πειθούς
η φειδώ – της φειδούς

Feminine Nouns in -ος, plural -οι

a. Stressed on the ultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. η οδ-ός (street) οι οδ-οί
Gen. της οδ-ού των οδ-ών
Acc. την οδ-ό τις οδ-ούς
Voc. (οδ-ό)  (οδ-οί)

b. Stressed on the penultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. η λεωφό-ος (avenue) οι λεωφόρ-οι
Gen. της λεωφόρ-ου των λεωφόρ-ων
Acc. τη λεωφόρ-ο τις λεωφόρ-ους
Voc. (λεωφόρ-ο)  (λεωφόρ-οι)

c. Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. η είσοδ-ος (entrance) οι είσοδ-οι
Gen. της εισόδ-ου των εισόδ-ων
Acc. την είσοδ-ου τις εισόδ-ους
Voc. (είσοδ-ο) (είσοδ-οι)

In the third case, we see that the stress moves down one syllable in the Genitive Singular, Genitive Plural & Accusative Plural, just like Masculine nouns in -ος.

3. Neutral Nouns

While we’ve learned how to decline the most common neutral nouns ending in

we have yet to learn several neutral nouns.

Neutral Nouns in -ος, pl. -η

a. Stressed on the penultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. το δάσ-ος (forest) τα δάσ-η
Gen. του δάσ-ους των δασ-ών
Acc. το δάσ-ος τα δάσ-η
Voc. – δάσ-ος δάσ-η

b. Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. το μέγεθ-ος (size) τα μεγέθ-η
Gen. του μεγέθ-ους των μεγεθ-ών
Acc. το μέγεθ-ος τα μεγέθ-η
Voc. – μέγεθ-ος μεγέθ-η

We see that only the Nominative, Accusative & Vocative cases in the Singular are actually stressed on the antepenult. All other cases are stressed on the penultimate, except for Genitive Plural which is stressed on the ultimate. Piece of cake!

Some more nouns in this group:

το λάθος (mistake, error)

το πάθος (passion)

το κτήνος (beast)

το άνθος (flower)

το έδαφος (ground)

 

Neutral Nouns forming their plural in -ατα:

a. Nouns in -(μ)α, pl. -(μ)ατα

Stressed on the penultimate


Singular Plural
Nom. το σώμ-α  (body) τα σώμ-ατα
Gen. του σώμ-ατος των σωμ-άτων
Acc. το σώμ-α τα σώμ-ατα
Gen. – σώμ-α σώμ-ατα

Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. το πρόβλημ-α (problem) τα προβλήμ-ατα
Gen. του προβλήμ-ατος των προβλημ-άτων
Acc. το πρόβλημ-α τα προβλήμ-ατα
Gen. – πρόβλημ-α προβλήμ-ατα

Other nouns in this group:

το κύμα (wave)

το θέμα (theme, subject)

το δράμα (drama)

το ποίημα (poem)

το διάστημα (space)

 

b. Nouns ending in (pl. -έα or -ατα)


Singular Plural
Nom. το οξ-ύ (*see below) τα οξ-έα
Gen. του οξ-έος των οξ-έων
Acc. το οξ-ύ τα οξ-έα
Gen. – οξ-ύ οξ-έα

* οξύ has several meanings, i.e. acid, acute, sharp, shrill


Singular Plural
Nom. το δόρ-υ (spear) τα δόρ-ατα
Gen. του δόρ-ατος των δορ-άτων
Acc. το δόρ-υ τα δόρ-ατα
Gen. – δόρ-υ δόρ-ατα

 

Neutral Nouns ending in -ας, -ως, -ος, with plural in -ατα


Singular Plural
Nom. το γεγον-ός (event, fact) τα γεγον-ότα
Gen. του γεγον-ότος των γεγον-ότων
Acc. το γεγον-ός τα γεγον-ότα
Gen. – γεγον-ός γεγον-ότα

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το τέρ-ας (monster) τα τέρ-ατα
Gen. του τέρ-ατος των τερ-άτων
Acc. το τέρ-ας τα τέρ-ατα
Gen. – τέρ-ας τέρ-ατα

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το φ-ως  (light) τα φ-ώτα
Gen. του φ-ωτός των φ-ώτων
Acc. το φ-ως τα φ-ώτα
Gen. – φ-ως φ-ώτα

 

Neutral Nouns ending in -ον, -εν, -αν, with Plural in -οντα, -εντα, -αντα: 


Singular Plural
Nom. το παρ-όν (present) τα παρ-όντα
Gen. του παρ-όντος των παρ-όντων
Acc. το παρ-όν τα παρ-όντα
Gen. – παρ-όν παρ-όντα

το παρελθόν (past)

το μέλλον (future)

το προϊόν (product)

το καθήκον (duty)

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το φωνή-εν (vowel) τα φωνή-εντα
Gen. του φωνή-εντος των φωνη-έντων
Acc. το φωνή-εν τα φωνή-εντα
Gen. – φωνή-εν φωνή-εντα

το μηδέν (zero) –> This one’s somewhat irregular, as it forms Genitive Singular as μηδενός; also, in Plural, it uses the form μηδενικά, μηδενικών, etc.

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το σύμπ-αν (universe) τα σύμπ-αντα
Gen. του σύμπ-αντος των συμπ-άντων
Acc. το σύμπ-αν τα σύμπ-αντα
Gen. – σύμπ-αν σύμπ-αντα

With the above paradigms, we can say that we’re done with the tables of declension for the nouns, and that we’ve learned all the major groups of Greek nouns. Should we meet a highly irregular (and exceptional) one in later lessons, we shall deal with it on-the-spot.

Please, learn these examples well & revise previous Lessons (3-7). As an exercise, you can decline as many as you want of the nouns included in the Vocabulary taught so far.

 

In Lesson 12, we shall look into Relative Pronouns & Conjunctions, in order to enter a new, exciting area of the language: the formation of Subordinate sentences.


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Best Beaches in Greece

1. Navagio, Zakynthos (Zante)

Navagio is perhaps the most famous of all Greek beaches. Its photo has made the round of the Earth on posters, calendars, postcards, and has been used as a promotional image of the country’s tourism.

Navagio beach, by Wikimedia Commons

Navagio means Shipwreck in Greek. The dark silhouette of a rusted ship against the white sand beach and the high rock behind it, combined with the extremely clear blue water that kisses the shore, make of it a natural work of art, worthy of its fame. The ship, smuggling cigarettes, stranded on the beach at 1983 due to bad weather and to getting off course while trying to avoid the coastguard.

The beach is located at North-West Zante. The only way to go there is by boat. Actually, there are lots of daily excursions from many points of the island. Porto Vromi is the closest spot from where the boat puts about 20 minutes to get to Navagio. At the port of the capital town, at Laganas bay, and at Alykes you can join cruises that take you around the island. Another option is Agios Nikolaos of Volimes and Cape Schinari(at the North of the island), from where excursions to Navagio and to the Blue Caves (don’t miss these either!) are organized regularly.

If you don’t care about swimming at the beach, you can reach the spot by car at about18 milesfrom the town ofZante, near the village Anaphonitria. There’s no way to get you down to the beach, but you can stand at the little platform and take some spectacular shots.

 

2. Balos Lagoon, Crete

 On the North-West corner of Crete, at 36 miles from the picturesque city-port of Chania, you can find one ofMediterranean’s best beaches. Shallow and warm, with blue and green waters, tiny rosy shards of sea shells coloring the white sand, it is worth the trip – for it is not easy getting there…

You can either take the boat that makes the regular trip from the little port of Kasteli, leaving at 09:30 and returning at 16:00. You can also reach the spot by road, but that’s where trouble begins: you’ll put a bit more than6 milesto arrive, riding on a bumpy dirt road, so having either a 4X4 car or a bike is a must. The last part of the way is not accessible by car, which means that you have to walk another 15 minutes to enjoy a unique view of the lagoon from above – if you’re up to it, it’s definitely worth the effort.

The lagoon is situated at the back of a quiet bay; furthermore, as the entrance of the bay is blocked by the islet of Gramvoussa, the trade winds will not disturb the peace of this corner of paradise. Children will play safely and enjoy the agreeable temperature. Be sure to bring an umbrella with you, for there is no shadow on the beach. Bring also your own food and water – there are no tavernas or canteens on the beach, just you and the seagulls.

For those who like the open sea and feel more adventurous, outside the lagoon waters are deep and blue. You can enjoy a nice, long swim or go diving and snorkeling in the extremely rich underwater world.

 

3. Porto Katsiki, Lefkada

 Lefkada is the only Greek island to which you can go by car, driving over the bridge that unites it with the opposite mainland shore of Western Greece. The Ionian Sea, betweenGreeceandItaly, is famous for the verdant islands, blue waters and white beaches, and Porto Katsiki has won its place as the most beautiful beaches of the area only by a few points.

You can recognize Porto Katsiki among a thousand beaches: it is a long, narrow, white strip of a beach just below a high lateral precipice of white rock. The beach itself is covered with tiny white pebbles, characteristic of the area, and waters are clear, fresh and light-blue.

Porto Katsiki is located at the South-West of Lefkada island and, unlike Balos lagoon inCrete, it can be approached by an asphalt road, some 25  miles from the island capital. There are parking lots where you can park your car for a few euros’ worth, but then you have to walk a little – not to mention descend some hundred stairs to get to the beach. Remember to buy some bottles of water and something to eat from the little shops before starting on your way down, for there is no such option on the beach.

Another way to go to Porto Katsiki is by boat, with daily excursions from the ports at Vassiliki and at Nydri. Not a bad idea, since you get to see the breathtaking view of the steep rock from the sea and get the photos that will make your friends back home green with envy.

 

4. Agios Prokopios, Naxos

If you want easy access to a beautiful beach, Agios Prokopios on Naxosis what you’re looking for. A long stretch of sand, going for more than a mile, with clear waters that seldom suffer from the blowing of the sea wind, Agios Prokopios is the island’s most popular resort.

A series of hotels, rooms, restaurants, cafes, bars and various shops nearby will not disturb you in the least while you’re relaxing on the sun beds under the many umbrellas (for the beach is highly organized) or you’re getting away from the crowds at the farthest end of the beach, which is left intact from tourist facilities.

The “red lake” is one more attraction of the beach — a salt lake, where herons can often be seen standing on its banks.

If you like water sports, especially windsurfing, Agios Prokopios is your place. The beach is also highly recommended for children, with the additional security of lifeguards.

Agios Prokopios is very near toNaxos’ capital (3 miles) and there is regular bus service to and from the beach.

 

5. Koukounaries, Skiathos

 At 8 miles distance to the South-West of Skiathos Town, Koukounaries is a quickly developing resort and one of Greece’s most famous beaches. Koukounaria is the pine tree, and you can guess by the name the magical picture of the evergreen pine tree forest almost diving into the blue Aegean waters.

Besides the beautiful nature, you can enjoy all kinds of tourist facilities, hotels, rooms, places to eat, drink and shop, making Koukounaries ideal for both romantic and family vacations. Water sports facilities are also available on the lengthy sandy beach, and the little sea port receives boats and yachts for those who prefer visiting by the sea.

Behind the forest, the lagoon of Strofilia is a wetland of breath-taking beauty with many rare species of birds nesting there. Near Koukounaries, the beaches of Banana (nudist beach) and of Agia Eleni complement the landscape and provide some more options for escape from the crowd.

Koukounaries is very easy to reach from either Skiathos Town or the airport; there is regular bus service, and you can also rent a car or bike, or even get a cab to take you there, as the distance is almost negligible.

 

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All photos, except otherwise noted, are intellectual property of their respective creators, shared under a Creative Commons license. You can get to the source page by clicking on the images.

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Lesson 10: Greek Adjectives, Pronouns & Numerals

 

In this lesson, we will learn:

    • Adjectives in -ων, -ουσα, -ον & in -ύς, -εία, -ύ
    • Reflexive & Demonstrative Pronous
    • Numbers, Cardinal & Ordinal

————————

1. Greek Adjectives

Adjectives in -ων, -ουσα, -ον

 Masculine


Singular Plural
Nom. o ενδιαφέρ-ων (interesting) οι ενδιαφέρ-οντες
Gen. του ενδιαφέροντ-α των ενδιαφερόντ-ων
Acc. τον ενδιαφέροντ-α τους ενδιαφέροντ-ες

 

 Feminine


Singular Plural
Nom. η ενδιαφέρουσ-α οι ενδιαφέρουσ-ες
Gen. της ενδιαφέρουσ-ας των ενδιαφερουσ-ών
Acc. την ενδιαφέρουσ-α τις ενδιαφέρουσ-ες

 

 Neutral


Singular Plural
Nom. το ενδιαφέρ-ον τα ενδιαφέροντ-α
Gen. του ενδιαφέροντ-ος των ενδιαφερόντ-ων
Acc. το ενδιαφέρ-ον τα ενδιαφέροντ-α

More adjectives in -ος, -ουσα, -ον:

ο επείγων, η επείγουσα, το επείγον –> urgent

ο μέλλων, η μέλλουσα, το μέλλον –> future, to-be

ο δευτερεύων, η δευτερεύουσα, το δευτερεύον –> secondary

 

  • The present participle of verbs (active voice) is formed according to this paradigm.

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Adjectives in -ύς, -ούσα, -ύ

 Masculine


Singular Plural
Nom. o ταχ-ύς (speedy, fast) οι ταχ-είς
Gen. του ταχ-έος των ταχ-έων
Acc. τον ταχ-ύ τους ταχ-είς
Gen. – ταχ-ύ ταχ-είς

 

 Feminine


Singular Plural
Nom. η ταχ-εία οι ταχ-είες
Gen. της ταχ-είας των ταχ-ειών
Acc. την ταχ-εία τις ταχ-είες
Gen. – ταχ-εία – ταχ-είες

 

 Neutral


Singular Plural
Nom. το ταχ-ύ τα ταχ-έα
Gen. του ταχ-έος των ταχ-έων
Acc. το ταχ-ύ τα ταχ-έα
Gen. – ταχ-ύ ταχ-έα

More adjectives in -ύς, -εία, -ύ:

ο ευθύς, η ευθεία, το ευθύ–> straight, straightforward

ο οξύς, η οξεία, το οξύ –> acute // acid

ο βραδύς, η βραδεία, το βραδύ–> slow-paced

——————————————-
 Masculine


Singular Plural
Nom. o ταχ-ύς (speedy, fast) οι ταχ-είς
Gen. του ταχ-έος των ταχ-έων
Acc. τον ταχ-ύ τους ταχ-είς
Gen. – ταχ-ύ ταχ-είς

 

 Feminine


Singular Plural
Nom. η ταχ-εία οι ταχ-είες
Gen. της ταχ-είας των ταχ-ειών
Acc. την ταχ-εία τις ταχ-είες
Gen. – ταχ-εία – ταχ-είες

 

 Neutral


Singular Plural
Nom. το ταχ-ύ τα ταχ-έα
Gen. του ταχ-έος των ταχ-έων
Acc. το ταχ-ύ τα ταχ-έα
Gen. – ταχ-ύ ταχ-έα

———————————

2. Pronouns

a. Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns show that the action performed by the subject returns to him/her self.

Εαυτός means self, and it’s declined as a noun.
As a reflexive pronoun, it is accompanied by the respective possessive adjectives (my/μου, your/σου, him/του, etc)

1st person


Singular Plural
Nom. o εαυτός μου
(myself)
οι εαυτοί μας
Gen. του εαυτού μου του εαυτού μας  or: των εαυτών μας
Acc. τον εαυτό μου τον εαυτό μας or: τους εαυτούς μας

 

2nd person


Singular Plural
Nom. o εαυτός σου
(yourself)
οι εαυτοί σας
Gen. του εαυτού σου του εαυτού σας  or: των εαυτών σας
Acc. τον εαυτό σου τον εαυτό σας or: τους εαυτούς σας

 

3rd person


Singular Plural
Nom. o εαυτός του/της
(himself, herself)
οι εαυτοί τους
Gen. του εαυτού του/της του εαυτού τους or: των εαυτών τους
Acc. τον εαυτό του/της τον εαυτό τους or: τους εαυτούς τους

The most commonly used case is the accusative.

 

b. Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are:

  • αυτός, αυτή, αυτό –> this
  • (ε)τούτος, (ε)τούτη, (ε)τούτο –> this
  • εκείνος, εκείνη, εκείνο –> that
  • τέτοιος, τέτοια, τέτοιο –> such
  • τόσος, τόση, τόσο –> so (much, big, many, etc), such

Examples of use:

  • Αυτές οι καρέκλες είναι ακριβές. –> These chairs are expensive.
  • Τούτο το βιβλίο είναι παλιό. –>This book is old.
  • Εκείνα τα κορίτσια είναι όμορφα. –> Those girls are pretty.
  • Μία τέτοια γυναίκα σου ταιριάζει. –> Such a woman is α good match for you.
  • Σήμερα θα διαβάσω τόσες σελίδες. –> Today I’ll read so many pages.

—————————

3. Numbers

a. Cardinal Numbers

We have already (Lesson 1) learned the first 10 cardinal numbers. Today we will count to 100.

11: έντεκα (ένδεκα)
12: δώδεκα
13: δεκατρία
14: δεκατέσσερα
15: δεκαπέντε
16: δεκαέξι
17: δεκαεπτά
18: δεκαοκτώ
19: δεκαεννιά
20: είκοσι
21: είκοσι ένα
22: είκοσι δύο
23: είκοσι τρία
(As you can see, after 20 the numbers are composed of the multiple of ten and the single cardinal 1-9, with no other complications.)
30: τριάντα
31: τριάντα ένα
32: τριάντα δύο
….
40: σαράντα
50: πενήντα
60: εξήντα
70: εβδομήντα
80: ογδόντα
90: ενενήντα
100: εκατό

b. Ordinal Numbers
1st: πρώτος, πρώτη, πρώτο
2nd: δεύτερος, δεύτερη, δεύτερο
3rd: τρίτος
4th: τέταρτος
5th: πέμπτος
6th: έκτος
7th: έβδομος
8th: όγδοος
9th: ένατος
10th: δέκατος
11th: ενδέκατος
12th: δωδέκατος
13th: δέκατος τρίτος
14th: δέκατος τέταρτος
15th: δέκατος πέμπτος
16th: δέκατος έκτος
17th: δέκατος έβδομος
18th: δέκατος όγδοος
19th: δέκατος ένατος
20th: εικοστός
21st: εικοστός πρώτος
22nd: εικοστός δεύτερος
……….
30th: τριακοστός
40th: τεσσαρακοστός
50th: πεντηκοστός
60th: εξηκοστός
70th: εβδομηκοστός
80th: ογδοηκοστός
90th: ενενηκοστός
100th: εκατοστός

Ordinal numbers are declined as simple adjectives in -ος, -η, -ό

—————————————-

Exercise:

 

Translate into Greek. You must also refer to previous lessons for vocabulary, declension, pronouns, etc.

  1. This beautiful dog is hers.
  2. That woman will harm (“do bad to,” in Greek) herself.
  3. The fourth house up on the mountain is ours.
  4. The car is fast, but (=αλλά) the train is faster.
  5. Maria and Caterina read many books and they know many stories. (story= η ιστορία)

 

Key to the exercise:

  1. Αυτός ο ωραίος σκύλος είναι δικός της.
  2. Εκείνη η γυναίκα θα κάνει κακό στον εαυτό της.
  3. Το τέταρτο σπίτι πάνω στο βουνό είναι δικό μας.
  4. Το αυτοκίνητο είναι ταχύ (γρήγορο), αλλά το τρένο είναι ταχύτερο (πιο γρήγορο, γρηγορότερο).
  5. Η Μαρία και η Κατερίνα διαβάζουν πολλά βιβλία και ξέρουν πολλές ιστορίες.
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Lesson 9: Greek Adjectives, Greek verbs and Possessives

 

In this lesson, we will learn:

    • Greek adjectives in -ής, -ής, -ές: Declension
    • Adjectives: Degrees of Comparison
    • Possessive Pronouns & Adjectives
    • Greek verbs, Part 5: Perfect tenses

————————

 Masculine


Singular Plural
Nom. o διεθν-ής (international) οι διεθν-είς
Gen. του διεθν-ή των διεθν-ών
Acc. το διεθν-ή τους διεθν-είς
Voc. διεθν-ή διεθν-είς

 

 Feminine


Singular Plural
Nom. η διεθν-ής οι διεθν-είς
Gen. της διεθν-ούς των διεθν-ών
Acc. τη διεθν-ή τις διεθν-είς
Voc. διεθν-ή διεθν-είς

 

 Neutral


Singular Plural
Nom. το διεθν-ές τα διεθν-ή
Gen. του διεθν-ούς των διεθν-ών
Acc. το διεθν-ές τα διεθν-ή
Voc. διεθν-ές διεθν-ή

More adjectives in -ης, -ης, -ες:

ο επιμελής, η επιμελής, το επιμελές –> studious, thorough-paced

ο ακριβής, η ακριβής, το ακριβές –> accurate
(do not confuse with ο ακριβός, η ακριβή, το ακριβό = expensive!)

ο ασθενής, η ασθενής, το ασθενές –> ill // weak

ο δημοφιλής, η δημοφιλής, το δημοφιλές –> popular

ο συνεχής, η συνεχής, το συνεχές –> continuous

——————————————-
Adjectives: Degrees of Comparison

As in English, adjectives in Greek have 3 degrees of comparison:

  •  Positive
  •  Comparative
  • Superlative

To denote comparison, we use the suffixes -τερος (comparative) and -τατος (superlative).

Positive Comparative Superlative
όμορφος (pretty) ομορφότερος ομορφότατος
μακρύς (long) μακρύτερος μακρύτατος
ευγενής (noble) ευγενέστερος ευγενέστατος
The comparative and superlative degrees are declined as normal adjectives, in all three genders:
ομορφότερος, ομορφότερη, ομορφότερο
ομορφότατος, ομορφότατη, ομορφότατο

For denoting the comparative degree, we can also use the adverb of amount πιο (=more):
όμορφος –> πιο όμορφος
μακρύς  –> πιο μακρύς
ευγενής –> πιο ευγενής
There is also a “relative” superlative degree, denoting a pre-eminence among a number of similar things, eg:
όμορφος  –> ο πιο όμορφος (among two or more pretty ones)
μακρύς   –> ο πιο μακρύς  (among two or more long ones)
————————————————————————————
Possessive Pronouns & Adjectives
In a nutshell, possessive adjectives are formed just as the weak forms of personal pronouns, but only in the Genitive case.
Thus, we have:
my voice –> η φωνή μου
your mother –> η μητέρα σου
his situation  –> η κατάστασή του
her baby  –> το μωρό της
its tail –> η ουρά του
our country –> η χώρα μας
your books –> τα βιβλία σας
their father –> ο πατέρας τους
Possessive pronouns are formed with the use of the adjective (ο) δικός, (η) δική, (το) δικό
(Attention: this adjective is never used separately)
with the addition of the possessive adjective
Thus, we say:
This car is mine. –> Αυτό το αυτοκίνητο είναι δικό μου.
This chair is yours. –>  Αυτή η καρέκλα είναι δική σου.
This dog is his. –> Αυτός ο σκύλος είναι δικός του.
These books are hers. –> Αυτά τα βιβλία είναι δικά της.
This garden is ours.  –>  Αυτός ο κήπος είναι δικός μας.
This book is yours.  –>  Αυτό το βιβλίο είναι δικό σας.
These flowers are theirs. –> Αυτά τα λουλούδια είναι δικά τους.
Notice that the Greek possessive adjective (μου, σου, του, …) conforms with the English possessive adjective, while the adjective δικός, δική, δικό conforms with the noun (in genderm number & case).
——————————————————–
Greek Verbs: Perfect Tenses
Perfect tenses, Indicative are:
  1. Present Perfect: indicates an action that happened in the past and whose outcome lasts until the present
  2. Past Perfect: indicates an action that happened in the past before another past action
  3. Future Perfect: indicates an action that will happen in the future before another future action

Perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliary verb έχω (‘to have’) in the respective simple tenses + the infinitive of the active voice, which is identical to the third person of the Simple Future.

In other words:

1. Present Perfect

(εγώ) έχω γνωρίσει  (εμείς) έχουμε γνωρίσει
(εσύ) έχεις γνωρίσει (εσείς) έχετε γνωρίσει
(αυτός) έχει γνωρίσει (αυτοί) έχουν γνωρίσει
(αυτή) έχει γνωρίσει (αυτές) έχουν γνωρίσει
(αυτό) έχει γνωρίσει (αυτά) έχουν γνωρίσει

 

1. Past Perfect

(εγώ) είχα γνωρίσει  (εμείς) είχαμε γνωρίσει
(εσύ) είχες γνωρίσει (εσείς) είχατε γνωρίσει
(αυτός) είχε γνωρίσει (αυτοί) είχαν γνωρίσει
(αυτή) είχε γνωρίσει (αυτές) είχαν γνωρίσει
(αυτό) είχε γνωρίσει (αυτά) είχαν γνωρίσει

 

1. Future Perfect

(εγώ) θα έχω γνωρίσει  (εμείς) θα έχουμε γνωρίσει
(εσύ) θα έχεις γνωρίσει (εσείς) θα έχετε γνωρίσει
(αυτός) θα έχει γνωρίσει (αυτοί) θα έχουν γνωρίσει
(αυτή) θα έχει γνωρίσει (αυτές) θα έχουν γνωρίσει
(αυτό) θα έχει γνωρίσει (αυτά) θα έχουν γνωρίσει

———————————————————-

Exercise: 

Transfer the following verbs in all the tenses of the Indicative that we have learned so far (Present, Imperfect, Simple Past, Future Continuous, Simple Future, Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect). You can write the first person singular, or you can decline the verb in all persons and numbers (even better!):

πηγαίν-ω , ακού-ω , βλέπ-ω , λέ-ω , φτάν-ω , γράφ-ω , διαβάζ-ω, αρχίζ-ω, λείπ-ω, τελειών-ω, αγαπ-ώ , νικ-ώ, πετ-ώ, πηδ-ώ, κοιτ-ώ, κρατ-ώ, πον-ώ, πειν-ώ, βοηθ-ώ, λειτουργ-ώ, χρησιμοποι-ώ, καλ-ώ, ωφελ-ώ

 

————————————

 

 

Key to the exercise:

πηγαίν-ω –> πήγαινα, πήγα, θα πηγαίνω, θα πάω, έχω πάει, είχα πάει, θα έχω πάει

ακού-ω –> άκουγα, άκουσα, θα ακούω, θα ακούσω, έχω ακούσει, είχα ακούσει, θα έχω ακούσει

βλέπ-ω –> έβλεπα, είδα, θα βλέπω, θα δω, έχω δει, είχα δει, θα έχω δει

λέ-ω –> έλεγα, είπα, θα λέω, θα πω, έχω πει, είχα πει, θα έχω πει

φτάν-ω –> έφτανα, έφτασα, θα φτάνω, θα φτάσω, εχω φτάσει, είχα φτάσει, θα έχω φτάσει

γράφ-ω –> έγραφα, έγραψα, θα γράφω, θα γράψω, έχω γράψει, είχα γράψει, θα έχω γράψει

διαβάζ-ω –> διάβαζα, διάβασα, θα διαβάζω, θα διαβάσω, έχω διαβάσει, είχα διαβάσει, θα έχω διαβάσει

αρχίζ-ω –> άρχιζα, άρχισα, θα αρχίζω, θα αρχίσω, έχω αρχίσει, είχα αρχίσει, θα έχω αρχίσει

λείπ-ω –> έλειπα, έλειψα, θα λείπω, θα λείψω, έχω λείψει, είχα λείψει, θα έχω λείψει

τελειών-ω –> τελείωνα, τελείωσα, θα τελειώνω, θα τελειώσω, έχω τελειώσει, είχα τελειώσει, θα έχω τελειώσει

αγαπ-ώ –> αγαπούσα, αγάπησα, θα αγαπώ, θα αγαπήσω, έχω αγαπήσει, είχα αγαπήσει, θα έχω αγαπήσει

νικ-ώ –> νικούσα, νίκησα, θα νικώ, θα νικήσω, έχω νικήσει, είχα νικήσει, θα έχω νικήσει

πετ-ώ –> πετούσα, πέταξα, θα πετώ, θα πετάξω, έχω πετάξει, είχα πετάξει, θα έχω πετάξει

πηδ-ώ –> πηδούσα, πήδηξα, θα πηδώ, θα πηδήξω, έχω πηδήξει, είχα πηδήξει, θα έχω πηδήξει

κοιτ-ώ –> κοιτούσα, κοίταξα, θα κοιτώ, θα κοιτάξω, έχω κοιτάξει, είχα κοιτάξει, θα έχω κοιτάξει

κρατ-ώ –> κρατούσα, κράτησα, θα κρατώ, θα κρατήσω, έχω κρατήσει, είχα κρατήσει, θα έχω κρατήσει

πον-ώ –> πονούσα, πόνεσα, θα πονώ, θα πονέσω, έχω πονέσει, είχα πονέσει, θα έχω πονέσει

πειν-ώ –> πεινούσα, πείνασα, θα πεινώ, θα πεινάσω, έχω πεινάσει, είχα πεινάσει, θα έχω πεινάσει

βοηθ-ώ –> βοηθούσα, βοήθησα, θα βοηθώ, θα βοηθήσω, έχω βοηθήσει, είχα βοηθήσει, θα έχω βοηθήσει

λειτουργ-ώ –. λειτουργούσα, λειτούργησα, θα λειτουργώ, θα λειτουργήσω, έχω λειτουργήσει, είχα λειτουργήσει, θα έχω λειτουργήσει

χρησιμοποι-ώ –> χρησιμοποιούσα, χρησιμοποίησα, θα χρησιμοποιώ, θα χρησιμοποιησω, έχω χρησιμοποιήσει, είχα χρησιμοποιήσει, θα έχω χρησιμοποιήσει

καλ-ώ –> καλούσα, κάλεσα, θα καλώ, θα καλέσω, έχω καλέσει, είχα καλέσει, θα έχω καλέσει

ωφελ-ώ –> ωφελούσα, ωφέλησα, θα ωφελώ, θα ωφελήσω, έχω ωφελήσει,  είχα ωφελήσει, θα έχω ωφελήσει


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Lesson 8: Personal Pronouns, Future Tense

 

In this lesson, we will learn:

    • Personal Pronouns: Declension & Use
    • Greek verbs, Part 4: Future tense (Simple & Continuous)

————————

Personal Pronouns

The pronouns, as indicated by their name, are used instead of nouns or of nominal groups.
Personal pronouns are used in verb declension (as subjects) and in sentence syntax (as direct & indirect objects). Like verbs, they possess a person; like nouns, they possess a number and a case.
We have already seen some personal pronouns in action while studying the verbs — namely the nominative case of the subject personal pronouns. Here we will study the complete tables of personal pronouns declension:
.
First person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative εγώ εμείς
Genitive εμένα εμάς
Accusative εμένα εμάς
 Second person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative εσύ εσείς
Genitive εσένα εσάς
Accusative εσένα εσάς
Third person, masculine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative αυτός αυτοί
Genitive αυτού αυτών
Accusative αυτόν αυτούς
Third person, feminine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative αυτή αυτές
Genitive αυτής αυτών
Accusative αυτή(ν) αυτές
Third person, neutral
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative αυτό αυτά
Genitive αυτού αυτών
Accusative αυτό αυτά
These are called the “strong” forms of Personal Pronouns.
In modern Greek, we use the nominative case as subject to verbs.
The possessive and accusative case are employed as indirect and direct object, respectively — but for this purpose we use mostly the “weak” forms of these cases, as shown below:
.
First person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  —  —
Genitive  μου  μας
Accusative  με  μας
Second person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  —  —
Genitive  σου  σας
Accusative  σε  σας
Third person, masculine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  τος  τοι
Genitive  του  τους
Accusative  τον  τους
Third person, feminine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  τη  τες
Genitive  της  τους
Accusative  τη(ν)  τις / τες
Third person, neutral
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  το  τα
Genitive  του  τους
Accusative  το  τα

Of this “weak” form,  the nominative case is used very rarely, only in the phrases
“Να τος” (There he is), “Να τη” (There she is), etc

– How to use Personal Pronouns in a sentence

We already know how to use the nominative case of personal pronouns (“strong” forms) as subject to verbs. Let us now see how we can use them as

Direct Object (accusative case, “weak” form)

I looked at him. –> Τον κοίταξα.
(Confused? In Greek, the verb κοιτάζω takes a direct  object)

I know this. –> Το γνωρίζω.

I used the tools. –> I used them. –> Τα χρησιμοποίησα.

Indirect Object (possessive case, “weak” form)

I wrote her a letter. –> Της έγραψα ένα γράμμα.

I miss you. –> Μου λείπεις.
(Now, this is a tricky one:  In English the subject of the verb “to miss” is the person feeling the lack. In Greek though, “λείπω” literally means “being absent” — thus, the subject is the person being absent and the person feeling the lack becomes the indirect object.)

——————————-

The  Future 

Future tenses are marked by the presence of the Future Particle — θα — (=will)

 

Future Continuous is very simple to form: it is the Present tense preceded by the future particle. Thus, we have:

κάνω ( to do) –> θα κάνω (I will be doing)

πηγαίνω (to go) –>  θα πηγαίν-ω (I will be going)

βλέπ-ω (to see) –> θα βλέπω (I will be seeing)

αγαπώ (to love) –> θα αγαπώ (I will be loving)

χρησιμοποιώ (to use) –> θα χρησιμοποιώ (I will be using)

 

Simple Future is based on the theme of Simple Past:

πηγαίν-ω –> είπα –> θα πω

ακού-ω –> άκουσα –> θα ακούσω

βλέπ-ω –> είδα –> θα δω

λέ-ω –> είπα –> θα πω

φτάν-ω –> έφτασα –> θα φτάσω

γνωρίζ-ω –> γνώρισα –> θα γνωρίσω

γράφ-ω –> έγραψα –> θα γράψω

διαβάζ-ω –> διάβασα –> θα διαβάσω

αρχίζ-ω –> άρχισα –> θα αρχίσω

λείπ-ω –> έλειψα –> θα λείψω

τελειών-ω –> τελείωσα –> θα τελειώσω

αγαπώ –> αγάπησα –> θα αγαπήσω

νικ-ώ –> νίκησα –> θα νικήσω

πετ-ώ –> πέταξα –> θα πετάξω

πηδ-ώ –> πήδηξα –> θα πηδήξω

κοιτ-ώ –> κοίταξα –> θα κοιτάξω

κρατ-ώ –> κράτησα –> θα κρατήσω

πον-ώ –> πόνεσα –> θα πονέσω

πειν-ώ –> πείνασα –> θα πεινάσω

βοηθ-ώ –> βοήθησα –> θα βοηθήσω

λειτουργ-ώ –> λειτούργησα –> θα λειτουργήσω

χρησιμοποι-ώ –> χρησιμοποίησα –> θα χρησιμοποιήσω

καλ-ώ –> κάλεσα –> θα καλέσω

ωφελ-ώ –> ωφέλησα –> θα ωφελήσω

 

We see that the prefix –ε-that denotes the past tense is dropped and that the stress also drops onto the next syllable.

 

——————————————————-

Exercise: 

Transfer the verbs to the tenses requested. Do not change the number or person.

  1. πεινάς                                     :  Imperfect, Simple Future
  2. δείχνουμε (=point to)      :  Simple Past, Future Continuous
  3. βάφετε ( = to paint)           :  Imperfect, Future Continuous
  4. λαδώνουν (=to oil)            :  Simple Future, Future Continuous
  5. στραγγίζει (=to drain)       :  Simple Past, Imperfect
  6. μαγειρεύεις (=to cook)      :  Imperfect, Future Continuous

 

Key to the exercise:

  1. πεινούσες, θα πεινάσεις
  2. δείξαμε, θα δείχνουμε
  3. βάφατε, θα βάφετε
  4. θα λαδώσουν, θα λαδώνουν
  5. στράγγισε, στράγγιζε
  6. μαγείρευες, θα μαγειρεύεις
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Lesson 7: Greek Nouns, Simple Past, Vocabulary, Greek Sentences

 

In this lesson, we will learn:

  • Noun declension, Part 5: Masculine & Feminine nouns with an additional syllable in the plural number
  • Greek verbs, Part 3: Simple Past (active voice)
  • Adverbs (time, place, manner)
1. Noun Declension
In the previous lesson, we saw that the noun “καφετζής” (coffee shop owner) took an additional syllable in the plural number.
This may happen to a number of masculine nouns ending in -ης/-ής,
as well as to all nouns ending in -άς, -ές, -ούς (all stressed on the ultimate).
Let’s see how they are declined:

Singular Plural
Nom. o κουβ-άς(bucket) οι κουβ-άδες
Gen. του κουβ-ά των κουβ-άδων
Acc. τον κουβ-ά τους κουβ-άδες
Voc. κουβ-ά κουβ-άδες

Other nouns ending in -άς are:

ο χαλβάς –> halva

ο αρακάς –> snow pea

ο ψαράς –> fisherman

ο μυλωνάς –> miller

ο καβγάς –> argument, row

ο βοριάς –> the north wind

ο νοτιάς –> the south wind

 


Singular Plural
Nom. o καφ-ές(coffee) οι καφ-έδες
Gen. του καφ-έ των καφ-έδων
Acc. τον καφ-έ τους καφ-έδες
Voc. καφ-έ καφ-έδες

Other nouns ending in -ές are:

ο λεκές –> stain

ο μεζές –> meze, tapas

ο τενεκές –> tin

 


Singular Plural
Nom. o παππ-ούς (grandfather) οι παππ-ούδες
Gen. του παππ-ού των παππ-ούδων
Acc. τον παππ-ού τους παππ-ούδες
Voc. παππ-ού παππ-ούδες

Other common nouns ending in -ούς are:

ο νους –> mind

ο Ιησούς –> Jesus

Their particularity is that they have only a singular number.

 

– Feminine nouns in -ού and in -α / -ά with an additional syllable in the plural number:


Singular Plural
Nom. η αλεπ-ού (fox) οι αλεπ-ούδες
Gen. της αλεπ-ούς των αλεπ-ούδων
Acc. την αλεπ-ού τις αλεπ-ούδες
Voc. αλεπ-ού αλεπ-ούδες

 


Singular Plural
Nom. η μάν-α (mother) οι μαν-άδες
Gen. της μάν-ας των μαν-άδων
Acc. τη μάν-α τις μαν-άδες
Voc. μάν-α μαν-άδες

 


Singular Plural
Nom. η γιαγι-ά (grandmother) οι γιαγι-άδες
Gen. της γιαγι-άς των γιαγι-άδων
Acc. τη γιαγι-ά τις γιαγι-άδες
Voc. γιαγι-ά γιαγι-άδες

 

————————————

2. Greek Verbs, Part 3

Simple Past

1. Verbs in -ω: γνωρίζω

εγώ γνώρ-ισα (I knew) εμείς γνωρ-ίσαμε
εσύ γνώρ-ισες εσείς γνωρ-ίσατε
αυτός γνώρ-ισε αυτοί γνώρ-ισαν
αυτή γνώρ-ισε αυτές γνώρ-ισαν
αυτό γνώρ-ισε αυτά γνώρ-ισαν

We see that the consonant in the ending is different: Simple Past is characterized by the presence of the consonant -σ- or for a high occurrence of various irregular tense roots. Thus, we have:

κάνω (to do) –> έκανα (irregular, identical to Imperfect)

πηγαίν-ω (to go) –> πήγα (irregular)

ακού-ω (to hear, to listen) –> άκουσα

βλέπ-ω (to see) –> είδα (irregular)

λέ-ω (to tell) –> είπα (irregular)

φτάν-ω (to arrive) –> έφτασα

γνωρίζ-ω (to know) –> γνώρισα

γράφ-ω (to write) –> έγραψα (ψ = π+σ)

διαβάζ-ω (to read) –> διάβασα

αρχίζ-ω (to start) –> άρχισα

λείπ-ω (to miss, to be absent) –> έλειψα

τελειών-ω (to finish) –> τέλειωσα

 

2. Verbs in -άω, -ώ: αγαπώ

εγώ αγάπ-ησα (I loved) εμείς αγαπ-ήσαμε
εσύ αγάπ-ησες εσείς αγαπ-ήσατε
αυτός αγάπ-ησε αυτοί αγάπ-ησαν
αυτή αγάπ-ησε αυτές αγάπ-ησαν
αυτό αγάπ-ησε αυτά αγάπ-ησαν

 

νικ-ώ (to win) –> νίκησα

πετ-ώ (1. to fly // 2. to throw) –> πέταξα (ξ = κ+σ)

πηδ-ώ (to jump) –> πήδηξα

κοιτ-ώ (to look) –> κοίταξα

κρατ-ώ (to hold) –> κράτησα

πον-ώ (to ache) –> πόνεσα

πειν-ώ (to be hungry) –> πείνασα

βοηθ-ώ (to help) –> βοήθησα

 

Verbs in -έω, -ώ: κινώ

εγώ κίν-ησα (I moved) εμείς κιν-ήσαμε
εσύ κίν-ησες εσείς κιν-ήσατε
αυτός κίν-ησε αυτοί κίν-ησαν
αυτή κίν-ησε αυτές κίν-ησαν
αυτό κίν-ησε αυτά κίν-ησαν

Thus we have:

λειτουργ-ώ = to function –> λειτούργησα

χρησιμοποι-ώ = to use –> χρησιμοποίησα

καλ-ώ = to call // to invite –> κάλεσα

ωφελ-ώ = to benefit –> ωφέλησα

 

————————————————

Adverbs

Adverbs of time

τώρα –> now

πριν –> before

μετά (από) –> after

σήμερα –> today

χθες –> yesterday

αύριο –> tomorrow

φέτος –> this year

πέρισυ –> last year

του χρόνου –> next year

αργά –> late

νωρίς –> early

Adverbs of place

εδώ –> here

εκεί –> there

πάνω (από) –> above, on top of

κάτω (από) –> below, under

μπροστά (από) –> in front of, to the front

πίσω (από) –> behind

δίπλα (σε) –> beside

δεξιά –> to the right

αριστερά –> to the left

Adverbs of manner

έτσι –> like this

αλλιώς –> in another way

αργά –> slowly

γρήγορα –> quickly

δυνατά –> strongly

Adverbs of amount

πολύ –> much

λίγο –> a bit, little

πολύ λίγο –> too little

υπερβολικά –> too much

——————————————————-

Building Sentences in Greek

How would you say in Greek?

1. Yesterday I said ‘Good morning’ to grandfather.

2. The fisherman went to the sea and saw a beautiful cave.

3. The foxes ate the birds.

4. I read many books (βιβλίο, decline as πεύκο) last year.

5. Mary (Μαρία) is a good girl, but Paul (Παύλος) is a bad kid.

 

———————————–

Key to the exercise:

1. Χθες είπα “Καλημέρα” στον παππού.

2. Ο ψαράς πήγε στη θάλασσα και είδε μια όμορφη σπηλιά.

3. Οι αλεπούδες έφαγαν τα πουλιά.

4. Διάβασα πολλά βιβλία πέρισυ.

5. Η Μαρία είναι καλό κορίτσι, αλλά ο Παύλος είναι κακό παιδί.

 

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Lesson 6: More Greek Nouns & Adjectives, Imperfect Tense, Vocabulary, Greek Dialogues

In this lesson, we will learn:

  • Noun declension, Part 4: Masculine nouns in -ης, Neutral nouns in -ο, -ι
  • Adjectives, Part 2: Irregular Adjective πολύς, πολλή, πολύ
  • Greek verbs, Part 2: Imperfect Indicative (active voice)
  • Final -ν, Punctuation marks
  • Greek vocabulary / standard phrases

…plus, we will continue forming phrases and we will try ourselves with some exercises.


1. Noun Declension

In this lesson, we shall examine Masculine nouns ending in -της and in -ης (there are some particularities concerning the latter). We shall also look at Neutral nouns, namely the ones ending in -ο and in .

Masculine nouns ending in -της

When stressed on the penultimate, they roll over their stress to the last syllable in the genitive plural:


Singular Plural
Nom. o πολίτ-ης(citizen) οι πολίτ-ες
Gen. του πολίτ-η των πολιτ-ών
Acc. τον πολίτ-η τους πολίτ-ες
Voc. πολίτ-η πολίτ-ες

When stressed on the last syllable, well, no reason to worry about – the stress does not budge a single inch:


Singular Plural
Nom. o μαθητ-ής(pupil) οι μαθητ-ές
Gen. του μαθητ-ή των μαθητ-ών
Acc. τον μαθητ-ή τους μαθητ-ές
Voc. μαθητ-ή μαθητ-ές

The Masculine nouns ending in -ης, -ής (without the -τ-) are a bit trickier, since they take on an additional syllable in the plural number. Thus, we have:

ο καφετζής, οι καφετζήδες (coffee-shop owner)
ο μανάβης, οι μανάβηδες (greengrocer)
ο φούρναρης, οι φουρνάρηδες (baker)

Let us see how they are declensed one by one:

1. In the case of a noun stressed on the last syllable, in the plural the stressed vowel retains the stress despite the addition of the plural suffix.


Singular Plural
Nom. o καφετζ-ής οι καφετζ-ήδες
Gen. του καφετζ των καφετζ-ήδων
Acc. τον καφετζ-ή τους καφετζ-ήδες
Voc. καφετζ-ή καφετζ-ήδες

2. As in the previous case, the stressed vowel (penultimate) retains its stress in plural despite the addition of the plural suffix. This means that the plural is stressed on the antepenult.


Singular Plural
Nom. o μανάβ-ης οι μανάβ-ηδες
Gen. του μανάβ των μανάβ-ηδων
Acc. το μανάβ-η τους μανάβ-ηδες
Voc. μανάβ-η μανάβ-ηδες

3. When the noun is stressed on the antepenult and takes on an additional suffix denoting the plural, then we should apply the rule stipulating that a word cannot be stressed beyond the antepenult. Thus, the stress rolls over to the next syllable, as follows:


Singular Plural
Nom. o φούρναρ-ης οι φουρνάρ-ηδες
Gen. του φούρναρ των φουρνάρ-ηδων
Acc. το φούρναρ-η τους φουρνάρ-ηδες
Voc. φούρναρ-η φουρνάρ-ηδες

 

Neutral nouns ending in -o

We have already learnt how to inflect Neutral nouns ending in (stressed on the last syllable). Now we shall examine nouns ending in -o; in other words, the ones being stressed on the penultimate and on the antepenult.

Now, when stressed on the penultimate, things are very easy:


Singular Plural
Nom. το δέντρ-ο(tree) τα δέντρ-α
Gen. του δέντρ-ου των δέντρ-ων
Acc. το δέντρ-ο τα δέντρ-α
Voc. δέντρ-ο δέντρ-α

When stressed on the antepenult, on the other hand, we’ll see that in the genitive (singular and plural) the stress rolls down to the penultimate. Once again, this happens due to the -ου- and the -ω- vowels in the ending of the word (see Lesson 4, Word Sress Rules):


Singular Plural
Nom. το θέατρ-ο(theatre) τα θέατρ-α
Gen. του θεάτρ-ου των θεάτρ-ων
Acc. το θέατρ-ο τα θέατρ-α
Voc. θέατρ-ο θέατρ-α

Neutral nouns ending in -ι

Stressed on the last syllable:


Singular Plural
Nom. το παιδ-ί  τα παιδ-ιά
Gen. του παιδ-ιού των παιδ-ιών
Acc. το παιδ-ί τα παιδ-ιά
Voc. παιδ-ί παιδ-ιά

When stressed on the penultimate, we notice that the genitive (singular and plural) once again rolls the stress down to the last syllable:


Singular Plural
Nom. το λουλούδ-ι(flower) τα λουλούδ-ια
Gen. του λουλουδ-ιού των λουλουδ-ιών
Acc. το λουλούδ-ι τα λουλούδ-ια
Voc. λουλούδ-ι λουλούδ-ια

————————————–

2. The Adjectives

Irregular adjective πολύς, πολλή, πολύ

This is a quite common adjective in Greek – and, believe it or not, Greeks sometimes make mistakes when using it. Nevertheless, we shall study it thoroughly – just, don’t feel guilty if you don’t get it right from the start.

Πολύς means

  • (a good) many, much (=great)
  • a lot / lots of, plenty

depending on the context. A few examples:

Αυτός τρώει πολύ φαγητό. (He eats a lot of food.)
Έχουμε πολλά δέντρα στην αυλή. (We have many trees in the yard.)
Εσείς έχετε πολλή υπομονή. (You have much/great patience.)
Αυτή έχει πολλούς φίλους. (She has lots of friends.)

Do not confuse with the Adverb πολύ (=very):
Είμαι πολύ καλός. (I am very good.)
Θα αργήσω πολύ απόψε. (I’ll be very late tonight.)

1. Masculine


Singular Plural
Nom. o πολ-ύς οι πολ-λοί
Gen. του των πολ-λών
Acc. τον πολ-ύ τους πολ-λούς
Voc. (πολ-λοί)

2. Feminine


Singular Plural
Nom. η πολ-λή οι πολ-λές
Gen. της πολ-λής των πολ-λών
Acc. την πολ-λή τις πολ-λές
Voc. (πολ-λές)

3. Neutral


Singular Plural
Nom. το πολ-ύ τα πολ-λά
Gen. του των πολ-λών
Acc. το πολ-ύ τα πολ-λά
Voc. (πολ-λά)

—————————————-

3. Greek verbs, Part 2

Imperfect Indicative (Present in -ω)

εγώ έ-καν-α (I was doing*) εμείς κάν-αμε
εσύ έ-καν-ες εσείς κάν-ατε
αυτός έ-καν-ε αυτοί έ-καν-αν
αυτή έ-καν-ε αυτές έ-καν-αν
αυτό έ-καν-ε αυτά έ-καν-αν

(* Or, ‘I used to do’)

What happens here is that a prefix (έ-) is added to denote the past tense. Yet, not every time. The rule is that the verb must be stressed on the antepenult. When there is an antepenult, things are easy, we just move the stress. When there is no antepenult, we create it by adding the said prefix.

Thus, we can form the Imperfect of the verbs we learnt in the previous lesson:

πηγαίν-ω –> πήγαιν-α

ακού-ω –> άκου-γ-α

βλέπ-ω –> έ-βλεπ-α

λέ-ω –> έ-λε-γ-α

φτάν-ω –> έ-φταν-α

γνωρίζ-ω –> γνώριζ-α

γράφ-ω –> έ-γραφ-α

διαβάζ-ω –> διάβαζ-α

αρχίζ-ω –> άρχιζ-α

λείπ-ω –> έ-λειπ-α

τελειών-ω –> τέλειων-α

Remark: As you can see, when the theme (the root of the verb) ends in a vowel (e.g. ακού-ω, λέ-ω), we insert a consonant before the ending (άκουγα, έλεγα).

 

Imperfect (present in )

No prefix added here, the verb is stressed on the ending as follows:

εγώ αγαπ-ούσα εμείς αγαπ-ούσαμε
εσύ αγαπ-ούσες εσείς αγαπ-ούσατε
αυτός αγαπ-ούσε αυτοί αγαπ-ούσαν
αυτή αγαπ-ούσε αυτές αγαπ-ούσαν
αυτό αγαπ-ούσε αυτά αγαπ-ούσαν

Likewise, we can now form the verbs

νικ-ώ –> νικ-ούσα

πετ-ώ –> πετ-ούσα

πηδ-ώ –> πηδ-ούσα

κοιτ-ώ –> κοιτ-ούσα

κρατ-ώ –> κρατ-ούσα

πον-ώ –> πον-ούσα

πειν-ώ –> πειν-ούσα

βοηθ-ώ –> βοηθ-ούσα

 

Verbs in -έω –> are formed in the same manner – so, we have:

λειτουργ-ώ –> λειτουργ-ούσα

χρησιμοποι-ώ –> χρησιμοποι-ούσα

καλ-ώ –> καλ-ούσα

ωφελ-ώ –> ωφελ-ούσα

——————————————————
Final

We have already seen that the articles (singular accusative) sometimes keep the final and sometimes lose it.
The same happens with the word δε(ν) = not (e.g. Δεν τρώω αυγά, I do not eat eggs), as well as with certain pronouns (αυτήν, την, again in singular accusative).
The rule is simple and it has to do with the first letter of the word following our article, pronoun or other word:
Final is retained when the next word starts with:
  • a vowel, double vowel or vowel combination
  • the consonants κ, π, τ, ξ, ψ
  • the double letters μπ, ντ, γκ
  • the consonant combinations τσ, τζ

Examples:

την αυλή (the yard)την πέτρα (the stone)

την μπάλα (the ball)

τη σκάλα (the ladder)τη λύση (the solution)
τον άνθρωπο (the man)τον κήπο (the garden) το σκύλο (the dog)το φίλο (the friend)
δεν έχω (I don’t have)δεν κάνω (I don’t do)

δεν ξέρω (I don’t know)

δε βλέπω (I don’t see)δε φτάνω (I don’t arrive)

δε δίνω (I don’t give)

τον έχω (I have him)την έδενα (I was tying her) τον βλέπω* (I see him)τη λύνω (I untie her)
*The masculine pronoun keeps the final -ν no matter what the next letter.
——————————————————

Greek Vocabulary / Greek dialogues:

Greeting somebody:

Formal greeting (to an elder/unknown person, showing courtesy):
– Χαίρετε, πώς είστε; (= Hello, how are you?)
The use of plural number (2nd person) for addressing somebody denotes a more formal manner of speaking.

Less formal (to a friend or a minor):
– Γεια σου, πώς είσαι; / Γεια σου, τι κάνεις;
(Hello, how are you? / Hello, how are you doing?)

Answering to the above questions:
– Καλά, ευχαριστώ. (Fine, thank you)

And we may ask, in turn:
Εσύ; / Εσείς; (And you?)

Starting a phone call:

– Παρακαλώ; Ποιος είναι; or,
– Ορίστε; Ποιος είναι;
Hello. Who is this? (Who’s calling?)

– Καλημέρα / Καλησπέρα. Λέγομαι (John Smith). Μπορώ να μιλήσω στην κυρία Παπαδοπούλου, παρακαλώ;
Good morning / Good evening. My name is (John Smith). Can I speak to Mrs Papadopoulou, please?

At the clerk/cashier counter/office:

– Παρακαλώ, θα ήθελα…. (Please, I would like…)
– Παρακαλώ, χρειάζομαι… (Please, I need…)

To ask politely for permission or information:

– Με συγχωρείτε, μπορείτε να μου πείτε…
(Excuse me, could you tell me…)

Greetings according to the time of day:

Καλημέρα = Good morning (from daybreak to noon… and beyond)
Καλησπέρα = Good evening (from about 14:00 till late at night)
Καλό βράδυ = Good evening (when taking leave, from 18:00 to 20:00, sometimes even later, especially in the summer, when days are longer)
Καληνύχτα = Good night (when taking leave, late at night)

Adverbs of Time:

Σήμερα = Today
Αύριο = Tomorrow
Χθες = Yesterday
Τώρα = Now
Πριν = Before
Μετά = After

——————————————

Exercises:

I. In the following sentences, choose the right option:

1. Καλημέρα. Με λένε Γιώργο και έχω / έχεις τρία παιδιούς / παιδιά.
2. Αυτό είναι ένα / μία μεγάλο τραπέζι.
3. Η μητέρα πηγαίνει / πηγαίνουν στην Αθήνα.
4. Εσύ πεινάμε / πεινάς. Το / Η φαγητό είναι έτοιμης / έτοιμο.
5. Το ξενοδοχείο είναι ευγενικό / ωραίο.

II. Put the verb in the correct form:

1. Η γυναίκα (είμαι) ________ καλή.
2. Η βροχή (πέφτω) __________ .
3. Εμείς (βλέπω) _________ τον ήλιο.
4. Χθες τα παιδιά (διαβάζω) ________ μέχρι αργά (until late).
5. Αυτός (γνωρίζω) _________ τη Μέριλιν Μονρό.

 

Key to the exercises:

I.
1. έχω, παιδιά
2. ένα
3. πηγαίνει
4. πεινάς, το, έτοιμο
5. ωραίο

II.
1. είναι
2. πέφτει
3. βλέπουμε
4. διάβαζαν
5. γνώριζε

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Lesson 5: Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs – Greek Standard Phrases

In this lesson, we will learn:

  • Noun declension, Part 3: Masculine nouns in -ας, Feminine nouns in -η
  • Adjectives, Part 1
  • Greek verbs, Part 1: Present Indicative in -ω, -ώ
  • Greek standard phrases

…and, of course, we will continue forming phrases with the vocabulary and constructions we have learnt so far.


1. Noun Declension

In this lesson, we shall focus again on Masculine and Feminine nouns, as they are far more differentiated than Neutral nouns.

Masculine nouns ending in -ας

Stressed on the penultimate, but keeping the stress intact:


Singular Plural
Nom. o σωλήν-ας

(pipe, tube)

οι σωλήν-ες
Gen. του σωλήν-α των σωλήν-ων
Acc. το σωλήν-α τους σωλήν-ες
Voc. σωλήν-α σωλήν-ες

 

Stressed on the penultimate, but rolling the stress to the last syllable:


Singular Plural
Nom. o μήν-ας

(month)

οι μήν-ες
Gen. του μήν-α των μην-ών
Acc. το μήν-α τους μήν-ες
Voc. μήν-α μήν-ες

 

Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. o γείτον-ας

(neighbour)

οι γείτον-ες
Gen. του γείτον των γειτόν-ων
Acc. το γείτον-α τους γείτον-ες
Voc. γείτον-α γείτον-ες

As you can see again, the genitive plural ending in -ων (a ‘long’ vowel) compels the stress to ‘descend’ and rest on the penultimate. (See Lesson 4, for Greek Words Stress Rules)

Feminine nouns ending in -η: first group

Stressed on the last syllable:


Singular Plural
Nom. η φων-ή

(voice)

οι φων-ές
Gen. της φων-ής των φων-ών
Acc. τη φων-ή τις φων-ές
Voc. φων-ή φων-ές

 

Stressed on the penultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. η τέχν-η

(art, craft)

οι τέχν-ες
Gen. της τέχν-ης των τεχν-ών
Acc. την τέχν-η τις τέχν-ες
Voc. τέχν-η τέχν-ες

 

Feminine nouns ending in -η: 2nd group

Stressed on the penultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. η πόλ-η

(town)

οι πόλ-εις
Gen. της πόλ-ης των πόλ-εων
Acc. την πόλ-η τις πόλ-εις
Voc. πόλ-η πόλ-εις

 

Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. η κατάστασ-η

(situation)

οι καταστάσ-εις
Gen. της κατάστασ-ης των καταστάσ-εων
Acc. την κατάστασ-η τις καταστάσ-εις
Voc. κατάστασ-η καταστάσ-εις

This group of feminine nouns in -η is inflected using a more ancient scheme of endings – which, of course, influences stressing:

  • the double vowel -ει- in this position is considered a ‘long’ one and compels the stress to move down to the penultimate in the Nominative, Accusative and Vocative of Plural
  • the Genitive Plural ending -εων actually consists of 2 syllables, thus transforming the penultimate -στά- to antepenultimate.

Greek pupils have trouble too learning these rules. It’s one thing incorporating a language as your mother tongue and another, entirely different, to learn why you speak the way you do…

————————————–

2. The Adjectives

Greek adjectives have 3 genders. Today we will examine those with endings similar to the ones taught for Nouns.

Thus, we have:

ο μικρός, η μικρή, το μικρό (small)

ο μεγάλ-ος, η μεγάλ-η, το μεγάλ-ο (big)

ο ακριβ-ός, η ακριβ-ή, το ακριβ-ό (expensive)

ο φτην-ός, η φτην-ή, το φτην-ό (cheap)

ο καλ-ός, η καλ-ή, το καλ-ό (good)

ο κακ-ός, η κακ-ή, το κακ-ό (bad)

ο ωραί-ος, η ωραί-α, το ωραί-ο (beautiful)

ο νόστιμ-ος, η νόστιμ-η, το νόστιμ-ο (tasty)

They are inflected just like the respective nouns. You can do it yourself, go ahead…
—————————————-

3. Greek verbs, Part 1

Present Indicative in -ω (stressed on the penultimate)

εγώ κάν-ω (I do) εμείς κάν-ουμε
εσύ κάν-εις εσείς κάν-ετε
αυτός κάν-ει αυτοί κάν-ουν
αυτή κάν-ει αυτές κάν-ουν
αυτό κάν-ει αυτά κάν-ουν

Likewise, we can now form the verbs

πηγαίν-ω (to go)

ακού-ω (to hear, to listen)

βλέπ-ω (to see)

λέ-ω (to tell)

φτάν-ω (to arrive)

γνωρίζ-ω (to know)

γράφ-ω (to write)

διαβάζ-ω (to read)

αρχίζ-ω (to start)

λείπ-ω (to miss, to be absent)

τελειών-ω (to finish)

 

Present Indicative in -ώ (from -άω)

εγώ αγαπ-ώ (I love) εμείς αγαπ-άμε
εσύ αγαπ-άς εσείς αγαπ-άτε
αυτός αγαπ-ά αυτοί αγαπ-ούν
αυτή αγαπ-ά αυτές αγαπ-ούν
αυτό αγαπ-ά αυτά αγαπ-ούν

Likewise, we can now form the verbs

νικ-ώ (to win)

πετ-ώ (1. to fly // 2. to throw)

πηδ-ώ (to jump)

κοιτ-ώ (to look)

κρατ-ώ (to hold)

πον-ώ (to ache)

πειν-ώ (to be hungry)

βοηθ-ώ (to help)

Present Indicative in -ώ (from -έω)

εγώ κιν-ώ (I move, intr.) εμείς κιν-ούμε
εσύ κιν-είς εσείς κιν-είτε
αυτός κιν-εί αυτοί κιν-ούν
αυτή κιν-εί αυτές κιν-ούν
αυτό κιν-εί αυτά κιν-ούν

Likewise, we can form the verbs

λειτουργ-ώ = to function

χρησιμοποι-ώ = to use

καλ-ώ = to call // to invite

ωφελ-ώ = to benefit

— You can do it too…
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Some more elements that will help us build sentences are:

1. The conjunctive particle να (~to), connecting verbs

  • Θέλω να κοιμηθώ. I want to sleep.
  • Πρέπει να φύγουμε. We must go. (The verb is impersonal, and the person is denoted by the verb of the subordinate phrase.)
  • Μου αρέσει να ξυπνάω νωρίς. I like waking up early. (One more impersonal verb; this is mere coincidence though…)
  • Πηγαίνω να κάνω ένα μπάνιο. I’m going off to take a bath.

2. The Preposition σε added to the Definitive Article to denote movement (to) or position.

σε + το => στο

σε + τα => στα

σε + το(ν) => στο(ν)

σε + τις => στις, etc…

Examples:

Η Μαρία πηγαίνει στο σχολείο. Maria goes to school.

Το βιβλίο είναι πάνω στο τραπέζι. The book is on the table.

Δώσε το πιάτο στον Αντώνη. Give the plate to Antonis.

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Now, you may combine all the elements we have learnt so far, i.e.
  • articles
  • nouns
  • adjectives
  • verbs + auxiliary verbs

using the rules concerning Greek sentence structure, to make your own sentences.

Go over all previous Lessons and prepare for a set of intensive Revision Exercises for next week.

Meanwhile, learn some Standard Greek phrases:

Ευχαριστώ = Thank you

Παρακαλώ = 1. You’re welcome // 2. Please,…

Πόσο κάνει; Πόσο κοστίζει; = How much does it cost?

Πού βρίσκεται; = Where is it?

Θα ήθελα μία / ένα… = I’d like a…

Θέλω ένα δωμάτιο, παρακαλώ = I want a room, please.

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