Lesson 11: Greek Nouns, Final

 

In this lesson, we will learn the remaining tables of declension for Greek Nouns (Masculine, Feminine, Neutral)

This will be our final lesson on the declension of Nouns. We will learn some new ones & we’ll remember what we’ve learned up to now, with links to the respective pages.

1. Masculine Nouns

We have already learned how to decline masculine nouns ending in

Today we will learn how to decline Masculine Nouns in -έας (pl. -είς).



Singular Plural
Nom. o γραφ-έας (scribe) οι γραφ-είς
Gen. του γραφ-έα των γραφ-έων
Acc. το γραφ-έα τους γραφ-είς
Voc. – γραφ-έα γραφ-είς

Other nouns of the same group are:

ο ιερέας (priest)

ο γραμματέας (secretary)

ο αμφορέας (amphora)

ο συγγραφέας (writer, author)

 

2. Feminine Nouns

We’ve already learned how to decline feminine nouns ending in

To day we’ll learn two more paradigms:
Feminine Nouns in -ω and -ώ: They are mostly proper nouns (names of women), as well as a few common ones.

in -ω in -ώ
Nom. η Φρόσ-ω η Μυρτ-ώ
Gen. της Φρόσ-ως της Μυρτ-ώς
Acc. τη Φρόσ-ω τη Μυρτ-ώ
Voc. – Φρόσ-ω – Μυρτ-ώ

As is the case in English, proper names do not have a plural. Nevertheless, neither do common nouns of this group:

η ηχώ (echo)

η πειθώ (persuasion)

η φειδώ (thrift, frugality)

These nouns may also form the Genitive case in -ούς:
η ηχώ – της ηχούς
η πειθώ – της πειθούς
η φειδώ – της φειδούς

Feminine Nouns in -ος, plural -οι

a. Stressed on the ultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. η οδ-ός (street) οι οδ-οί
Gen. της οδ-ού των οδ-ών
Acc. την οδ-ό τις οδ-ούς
Voc. (οδ-ό)  (οδ-οί)

b. Stressed on the penultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. η λεωφό-ος (avenue) οι λεωφόρ-οι
Gen. της λεωφόρ-ου των λεωφόρ-ων
Acc. τη λεωφόρ-ο τις λεωφόρ-ους
Voc. (λεωφόρ-ο)  (λεωφόρ-οι)

c. Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. η είσοδ-ος (entrance) οι είσοδ-οι
Gen. της εισόδ-ου των εισόδ-ων
Acc. την είσοδ-ου τις εισόδ-ους
Voc. (είσοδ-ο) (είσοδ-οι)

In the third case, we see that the stress moves down one syllable in the Genitive Singular, Genitive Plural & Accusative Plural, just like Masculine nouns in -ος.

3. Neutral Nouns

While we’ve learned how to decline the most common neutral nouns ending in

we have yet to learn several neutral nouns.

Neutral Nouns in -ος, pl. -η

a. Stressed on the penultimate:


Singular Plural
Nom. το δάσ-ος (forest) τα δάσ-η
Gen. του δάσ-ους των δασ-ών
Acc. το δάσ-ος τα δάσ-η
Voc. – δάσ-ος δάσ-η

b. Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. το μέγεθ-ος (size) τα μεγέθ-η
Gen. του μεγέθ-ους των μεγεθ-ών
Acc. το μέγεθ-ος τα μεγέθ-η
Voc. – μέγεθ-ος μεγέθ-η

We see that only the Nominative, Accusative & Vocative cases in the Singular are actually stressed on the antepenult. All other cases are stressed on the penultimate, except for Genitive Plural which is stressed on the ultimate. Piece of cake!

Some more nouns in this group:

το λάθος (mistake, error)

το πάθος (passion)

το κτήνος (beast)

το άνθος (flower)

το έδαφος (ground)

 

Neutral Nouns forming their plural in -ατα:

a. Nouns in -(μ)α, pl. -(μ)ατα

Stressed on the penultimate


Singular Plural
Nom. το σώμ-α  (body) τα σώμ-ατα
Gen. του σώμ-ατος των σωμ-άτων
Acc. το σώμ-α τα σώμ-ατα
Gen. – σώμ-α σώμ-ατα

Stressed on the antepenult:


Singular Plural
Nom. το πρόβλημ-α (problem) τα προβλήμ-ατα
Gen. του προβλήμ-ατος των προβλημ-άτων
Acc. το πρόβλημ-α τα προβλήμ-ατα
Gen. – πρόβλημ-α προβλήμ-ατα

Other nouns in this group:

το κύμα (wave)

το θέμα (theme, subject)

το δράμα (drama)

το ποίημα (poem)

το διάστημα (space)

 

b. Nouns ending in (pl. -έα or -ατα)


Singular Plural
Nom. το οξ-ύ (*see below) τα οξ-έα
Gen. του οξ-έος των οξ-έων
Acc. το οξ-ύ τα οξ-έα
Gen. – οξ-ύ οξ-έα

* οξύ has several meanings, i.e. acid, acute, sharp, shrill


Singular Plural
Nom. το δόρ-υ (spear) τα δόρ-ατα
Gen. του δόρ-ατος των δορ-άτων
Acc. το δόρ-υ τα δόρ-ατα
Gen. – δόρ-υ δόρ-ατα

 

Neutral Nouns ending in -ας, -ως, -ος, with plural in -ατα


Singular Plural
Nom. το γεγον-ός (event, fact) τα γεγον-ότα
Gen. του γεγον-ότος των γεγον-ότων
Acc. το γεγον-ός τα γεγον-ότα
Gen. – γεγον-ός γεγον-ότα

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το τέρ-ας (monster) τα τέρ-ατα
Gen. του τέρ-ατος των τερ-άτων
Acc. το τέρ-ας τα τέρ-ατα
Gen. – τέρ-ας τέρ-ατα

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το φ-ως  (light) τα φ-ώτα
Gen. του φ-ωτός των φ-ώτων
Acc. το φ-ως τα φ-ώτα
Gen. – φ-ως φ-ώτα

 

Neutral Nouns ending in -ον, -εν, -αν, with Plural in -οντα, -εντα, -αντα: 


Singular Plural
Nom. το παρ-όν (present) τα παρ-όντα
Gen. του παρ-όντος των παρ-όντων
Acc. το παρ-όν τα παρ-όντα
Gen. – παρ-όν παρ-όντα

το παρελθόν (past)

το μέλλον (future)

το προϊόν (product)

το καθήκον (duty)

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το φωνή-εν (vowel) τα φωνή-εντα
Gen. του φωνή-εντος των φωνη-έντων
Acc. το φωνή-εν τα φωνή-εντα
Gen. – φωνή-εν φωνή-εντα

το μηδέν (zero) –> This one’s somewhat irregular, as it forms Genitive Singular as μηδενός; also, in Plural, it uses the form μηδενικά, μηδενικών, etc.

 


Singular Plural
Nom. το σύμπ-αν (universe) τα σύμπ-αντα
Gen. του σύμπ-αντος των συμπ-άντων
Acc. το σύμπ-αν τα σύμπ-αντα
Gen. – σύμπ-αν σύμπ-αντα

With the above paradigms, we can say that we’re done with the tables of declension for the nouns, and that we’ve learned all the major groups of Greek nouns. Should we meet a highly irregular (and exceptional) one in later lessons, we shall deal with it on-the-spot.

Please, learn these examples well & revise previous Lessons (3-7). As an exercise, you can decline as many as you want of the nouns included in the Vocabulary taught so far.

 

In Lesson 12, we shall look into Relative Pronouns & Conjunctions, in order to enter a new, exciting area of the language: the formation of Subordinate sentences.


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