Lesson 8: Personal Pronouns, Future Tense

 

In this lesson, we will learn:

    • Personal Pronouns: Declension & Use
    • Greek verbs, Part 4: Future tense (Simple & Continuous)

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Personal Pronouns

The pronouns, as indicated by their name, are used instead of nouns or of nominal groups.
Personal pronouns are used in verb declension (as subjects) and in sentence syntax (as direct & indirect objects). Like verbs, they possess a person; like nouns, they possess a number and a case.
We have already seen some personal pronouns in action while studying the verbs — namely the nominative case of the subject personal pronouns. Here we will study the complete tables of personal pronouns declension:
.
First person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative εγώ εμείς
Genitive εμένα εμάς
Accusative εμένα εμάς
 Second person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative εσύ εσείς
Genitive εσένα εσάς
Accusative εσένα εσάς
Third person, masculine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative αυτός αυτοί
Genitive αυτού αυτών
Accusative αυτόν αυτούς
Third person, feminine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative αυτή αυτές
Genitive αυτής αυτών
Accusative αυτή(ν) αυτές
Third person, neutral
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative αυτό αυτά
Genitive αυτού αυτών
Accusative αυτό αυτά
These are called the “strong” forms of Personal Pronouns.
In modern Greek, we use the nominative case as subject to verbs.
The possessive and accusative case are employed as indirect and direct object, respectively — but for this purpose we use mostly the “weak” forms of these cases, as shown below:
.
First person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  —  —
Genitive  μου  μας
Accusative  με  μας
Second person
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  —  —
Genitive  σου  σας
Accusative  σε  σας
Third person, masculine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  τος  τοι
Genitive  του  τους
Accusative  τον  τους
Third person, feminine
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  τη  τες
Genitive  της  τους
Accusative  τη(ν)  τις / τες
Third person, neutral
Case Singular number Plural number
Nominative  το  τα
Genitive  του  τους
Accusative  το  τα

Of this “weak” form,  the nominative case is used very rarely, only in the phrases
“Να τος” (There he is), “Να τη” (There she is), etc

– How to use Personal Pronouns in a sentence

We already know how to use the nominative case of personal pronouns (“strong” forms) as subject to verbs. Let us now see how we can use them as

Direct Object (accusative case, “weak” form)

I looked at him. –> Τον κοίταξα.
(Confused? In Greek, the verb κοιτάζω takes a direct  object)

I know this. –> Το γνωρίζω.

I used the tools. –> I used them. –> Τα χρησιμοποίησα.

Indirect Object (possessive case, “weak” form)

I wrote her a letter. –> Της έγραψα ένα γράμμα.

I miss you. –> Μου λείπεις.
(Now, this is a tricky one:  In English the subject of the verb “to miss” is the person feeling the lack. In Greek though, “λείπω” literally means “being absent” — thus, the subject is the person being absent and the person feeling the lack becomes the indirect object.)

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The  Future 

Future tenses are marked by the presence of the Future Particle — θα — (=will)

 

Future Continuous is very simple to form: it is the Present tense preceded by the future particle. Thus, we have:

κάνω ( to do) –> θα κάνω (I will be doing)

πηγαίνω (to go) –>  θα πηγαίν-ω (I will be going)

βλέπ-ω (to see) –> θα βλέπω (I will be seeing)

αγαπώ (to love) –> θα αγαπώ (I will be loving)

χρησιμοποιώ (to use) –> θα χρησιμοποιώ (I will be using)

 

Simple Future is based on the theme of Simple Past:

πηγαίν-ω –> είπα –> θα πω

ακού-ω –> άκουσα –> θα ακούσω

βλέπ-ω –> είδα –> θα δω

λέ-ω –> είπα –> θα πω

φτάν-ω –> έφτασα –> θα φτάσω

γνωρίζ-ω –> γνώρισα –> θα γνωρίσω

γράφ-ω –> έγραψα –> θα γράψω

διαβάζ-ω –> διάβασα –> θα διαβάσω

αρχίζ-ω –> άρχισα –> θα αρχίσω

λείπ-ω –> έλειψα –> θα λείψω

τελειών-ω –> τελείωσα –> θα τελειώσω

αγαπώ –> αγάπησα –> θα αγαπήσω

νικ-ώ –> νίκησα –> θα νικήσω

πετ-ώ –> πέταξα –> θα πετάξω

πηδ-ώ –> πήδηξα –> θα πηδήξω

κοιτ-ώ –> κοίταξα –> θα κοιτάξω

κρατ-ώ –> κράτησα –> θα κρατήσω

πον-ώ –> πόνεσα –> θα πονέσω

πειν-ώ –> πείνασα –> θα πεινάσω

βοηθ-ώ –> βοήθησα –> θα βοηθήσω

λειτουργ-ώ –> λειτούργησα –> θα λειτουργήσω

χρησιμοποι-ώ –> χρησιμοποίησα –> θα χρησιμοποιήσω

καλ-ώ –> κάλεσα –> θα καλέσω

ωφελ-ώ –> ωφέλησα –> θα ωφελήσω

 

We see that the prefix –ε-that denotes the past tense is dropped and that the stress also drops onto the next syllable.

 

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Exercise: 

Transfer the verbs to the tenses requested. Do not change the number or person.

  1. πεινάς                                     :  Imperfect, Simple Future
  2. δείχνουμε (=point to)      :  Simple Past, Future Continuous
  3. βάφετε ( = to paint)           :  Imperfect, Future Continuous
  4. λαδώνουν (=to oil)            :  Simple Future, Future Continuous
  5. στραγγίζει (=to drain)       :  Simple Past, Imperfect
  6. μαγειρεύεις (=to cook)      :  Imperfect, Future Continuous

 

Key to the exercise:

  1. πεινούσες, θα πεινάσεις
  2. δείξαμε, θα δείχνουμε
  3. βάφατε, θα βάφετε
  4. θα λαδώσουν, θα λαδώνουν
  5. στράγγισε, στράγγιζε
  6. μαγείρευες, θα μαγειρεύεις
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